Urban Optics Opticians, Scotts St., Killarney, Kerry

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration

About Macular Degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment in the over-50s age group.

“AMD is degeneration of the macula, which is the part of the retina responsible for the sharp, central vision needed to read or drive. Because the macula primarily is affected in AMD, central vision loss may occur.”

There are two main types of AMD: Wet AMD and Dry AMD


Wet macular degeneration is a chronic eye disease that causes vision loss in the center of your field of vision. Wet macular degeneration is generally caused by abnormal blood vessels that leak fluid or blood into the region of the macula (MAK-u-luh). The macula is in the center of the retina (the layer of tissue on the inside back wall of your eyeball).

Wet AMD; This is where blood vessels behind the retina at the back of the eye, leak, causing central vision loss (think of leaky pipes behind a wall!). This causes a drop in oxygen supply to the cells in the macula and the body responds by producing new fragile blood vessels and scar tissue. This process will cause permanent vision loss to the central visual field. Unlike dry AMD, Wet AMD causes rapid vision loss and requires treatment. Wet AMD is thought to have  strong genetic link, so if a family member has had wet AMD it is wise to take a good Lutein supplement, follow a healthy diet and get plenty of exercise. You don’t develop Wet AMD suddenly. You will have had Dry AMD first though you may have not been aware of it.

Wet AMD is treated by a specialist Ophthalmologist using either Laser therapy, or Anti-VegF injections which prevent the formation of scar tissue and promote better healing at the macula.


Dry AMD; this causes the central vision to become dimmer and as the disease progresses, the central vision can become distorted. Dry AMD is the most common form of AMD and affects about 90% of people who have AMD. As we age, the cells of the macula at the back of the eye become thinner and less efficient and they lose Lutein, an important pigment essential to good eye-sight. AMD is an acceleration of the natural aging process at the back of the eye.

Dry AMD cannot be treated, but taking Lutein Supplements, following a healthy diet and lifestyle, with plenty of exercise and using good UV protective sunglasses can stabilise the progression of the condition.

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