Glaucoma is the name given to a group of eye diseases which affect the pressure in the eye. As the pressure of the fluid in the eye increases, it pushes on the delicate nerves at the back of the eye, which enable us to see.
Glaucoma causes damage to the Optic Nerve at the back of the eye. It causes the nerve fibres which carry the information about what we see, back to the brain along the optic nerve, to die off. The nerve fibres for the peripheral vision will die off first, which is why we don’t know when we have got Glaucoma as we do not notice that our peripheral vision has been affected by the disease until it is too late.
Once this damage occurs to the nerve fibres at the back of the eye, it cannot be reversed, because those nerve fibres are dead. This is why it is really important to detect Glaucoma before any significant damage has been done by the disease.
There are different types of Glaucoma, so your symtpoms will vary according to which type of Glaucoma you may have. Unfortunately, the most common form of Glaucoma does not cause any obvious symptoms, but naturally, if you feel that your eyes are bothering you, you should attend your Optometrist as soon as possible.
Know your risks
- Age: Risk of glaucoma increases with every decade of life after the age of 40
- Family history
- Ethnic group; Afro-Caribbean at highest risk
- Elevated Eye pressures
- Use of steroids
- History of eye injuries
- People who are very short or long sighted
- Diabetes or High Blood pressure
Glaucoma can be treated by an Ophthalmologists using laser surgery, eye drops or a combination of both. Treatment cannot undo damage that has been done by the disease, but it can prevent the progression of the disease. This is why early detection and intervention is vitally important.
Your Optometrists will test the pressure in your eyes using wither a puff of air test, or by gently touching your eye with a special instrument to test the pressure; this will require drops and is the most accurate method of detecting pressure in the eye.
You Optometrist will look at your Optic Disc to see if there are any signs of damage to the nerve fibres there.
Your Optometrists may also want to check you visual field using a special instrument to check the health of your visual field.
Get Your Eyes Screened for Glaucoma
Your Optometrist has the necessary training and equipment to carry out tests to see if you are at risk of having Glaucoma or if there has been any damage done to your eyes by the disease. If your Optometrists detects signs or symptoms of Glaucoma, they will refer you to an Eye Doctor who specialises in Glaucoma.